Healthy water - future of human life
The importance of drinking water is in its physical part in maintenance of metabolic processes and material exchange, epidemiological significance, as with water many bacterial, virus and parasite diseases can be transmitted, as well as in toxic part, if there are chemical pollutants more concentrated than they are allowed to.
Water is necessary for preparing food, keeping body hygiene, houses, flats, settlements, as well as for many industrial processes.
From the total quantity of water on Earth, only one small part is for drinking water, about 2 – 2,4% although. Water is spread all over the World, about 71%of its surface. In biosphere, water is in a liquid state and it can be vapor or in solid state.
Hydrologic cycle includes water evaporating, condensation into a liquid state, precipitation and their flowing (draining) into rivers, lakes and seas.
According to the source, waters are divided into: atmospheric (rain, snow, dew, fog and ice), surface (marsh, lake, river, seas and oceans) and subterranean (rivers which disappear into the Earth, springs, etc.).
The main water source is atmospheric water. It contains les minerals, but a lot of dissoluble oxygen and other gases and various microorganisms in the lower layers of the atmosphere.
From the total volume of the atmosphere precipitation the first part of it evaporates, the second part sinks into the Earth and the third one flow as surface water- rivers, lakes and seas. Surface waters are primary polluted by chemical and bacteriological waste water from settlements and industry.
Water which sinks through the Earth reaches various deepness's and flows as subterranean water mostly towards slopes with waterproof layers. On the way it is filtered, and it melts various chemical elements, gases (CO 2 and H 2 S) and temperature depending on depth and forms wading thermo mineral, carbon-acid or sulfite waters. Some of them, depending on layers, after the filtration, flow as clear natural and cold waters, and they come to the surface and then springs appear.
By increasing of population on the Earth, a lot of cities and many industrial complexes are built, and they make many waste waters and gases, and they have polluted ground, air and mostly the supplies of subterranean pure drinking water. That's why the World Healthy Organization (WHO) has started as a main problem for the mankind survival.
There are fewer and fewer pure waters, subterranean waters are polluted and population on the Earth increases every day. Water from plumbing system is less used for drinking.
So, mineral and pure bottled natural oligomineral waters are more used for health protecting.
In the Republika of Srpska as well as in the whole BiH, there is a problem of supplying people with pure drinking water. We have got few factories which bottle natural waters for daily needs.
Subterranean waters are polluted in many places. Nobody turns attention to protect our environment, because of economics crisis.
The potential of pure waters in the Republika of Srpska are unknown. Hydro-geological grounds are not tilled and we have not got the organized protection for full of water areas.
The Area of Kozara massive and foothills is not polluted by waste waters and it can be considered as natural protected one. The natural sources are known, but the waters are not analyzed. However, there are a lot of safe potentials under the ground which must be verified.
In a small village Bijakovac there is a natural spring with drinking water, called “Fenced well”. It is situated on the grass full of trees.
That village is between a mountain Kozara and Prosara about 500 – 600 meters height above sea level. Hills and mountains are overgrown with beech.
The source (spring) is on the flat ground surrounded by a round concrete wall. There is a metal pipe which goes to two water pipes on the concrete wall where people use water for drinking. The spring is stable and it flows from pipes to a river.
It is 300 m far from the nearest house, and 20 km from Kozarska Dubica municipality. This spring water has been used for drinking for years.
TIME FOR ANYLISING WATER
At 5 th December 2003. phys. – chemist Branislav Potkonjak with presence of Mr. Šobot Milan, did the fieldworks analyses and water conservation for laboratory.
The weather that day was cloudy, cold with air temperature 10.5°C.
I - ORGANIC FINDINGS :
1. Color : water is clear (pure)
2. Aroma : without smell3. Taste: good
II - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL INDICATORS:
1. Temperature: It is 12,5°C – it belongs to cold waters
2. Color and unclearness: Color (°Pt-Co scale) and unclearness (NTU) is “0” that means water does not contain any admixture.
3. pH value: Water gives natural reaction with pH = 7,1
4. Mineralization: Total mineralization is 420mg/L, and dry residue at 180°C is 280mg/L, it belongs to group of oligomineral waters.
III - CHEMICAL ANALYSES :
Natural oligomineral water in Bijakovac belongs to mid mineralized drinking waters, which consists three times more anions than cations (300,9 : 96,7 mg/L).
1. Cations: Inside the cation there are mostly Ca ions with 88,5 mg/L or 90,49 mval%, and small quantity of other ions, especially Na, only 3,6 mg/L.
This small quantity of Na is very important, as it gives wide opportunities for drinking this water for the whole population, and it is especially important for the people with high blood pressure to use it during their medical treatment and diet.
2. Anions: Anions structure is with absolute hydro carbonate domination of 283 mg/L or 92,54 mval% with very small quantity of chloride – 6,8 mg/L and sulphate – 3,0 mg/L. The other anions are in very small quantities.
3. Poor electrolytes: Only in small quantities.
4. Dissolved gases: This water have few dissolved gases, but it is important that it is very saturated with oxygen of 87% validity.
IV - PHISIOLOGIC ACTIVE MICROELEMENTS AND POLLUTANTS :
Among heavy metals and other toxically elements there are not any validity which exceeds allowed quantities for drinking water.
Useful dissolved elements are present only in trails.
There are not any pollutants that they are harmful to human health.
V - RADIOACTIVITY :
Radioactive elements are present in natural validities.
VI - MICROBIOLOGICAL FINDINGS :
Bacterial inspection is done in the Institute of Health Care of the Republika of Srpska in Banja Luka:
In 100 ml of water in the natural spring of Bijakovac , there are identificated bacterium's and E.colli, as well and 5 air mesophiled bacterium's.
Under the bacterial inspection, the sample of water does not conform to the regulations and the standards for purified water (Official Register of SFRJ No 33/87 and 13/91.).
VII - CLASSIFICATION :
Natural water from the spring in Bijakovac belongs to category of CALTIUM – HYDROCARBONAL – COLD, OLIGOMINERAL WATERS.
Natural spring of water in Bijakovac belongs to the group of stable waters that never run dry during the Year. It has been as drinking water by the local population for a long time. It is a healthful source (spring) which has never been made muddy, has never changed color. That's why it is always used gladly as drinking water. There are not industrial and other pollutants nearby. It is now sheltered primitively by a concrete wall from which the water runs though a pipe next to the concrete fence with two pipes and is used for drinking. From that place water flows away by forming a small stream.
We have found out organically, that it is good water without gases and smell, nice cold taste, for what we have proof also from physical analyses of color and unclearness of the water.
On the base of total mineralization of 420 mg/L and dry residue on 180°Cof 280 mg/L, this water belongs to middle mineral-oligomineral waters, calcium-hydro carbonate type. It has got only 3,6 mg/L, of Na, which makes it good for a wide consummation, and other dissolved cations are present in small amount that they can not have influence on qualitative value (Mn and Fe). Except hydro carbonate, there are small amounts of phosphate and sulphate and the halogen elements in anion structure. All of microelements are found in small amounts, as well as compounds among pollutants.
Psychical-chemical analyses showed that it is natural oligomineral water, of simple structure, which has not got any elements which would limit its usage values.
Total approximate mineralization with domination of calcium-hydro carbonate and minor amount of natrium, gives us great opportunities for its wide usage by all population, especially ones with high blood pressure.
Because of its physical and chemical structure as natural oligomineral water, it gives us opportunities to use it for preparing all kinds of cooling drinks, juices and beverages.
Microbiological findings show us that water contains pathogenic bacterium, which makes it not drinkable for now. This finding, made on the open natural spring, is expected because the protection and catchments of the spring was not properly done. We thing that this problem can be solved by additional hydro - geological research.
For the exploitation of natural oligomineral water from the spring situated in the village Bijakovac near Kozarska Dubica, it is necessary to hire hydro-geologist for treatment of spring area in order to determine primary water area, boring supplies, and narrow and wide protecting zone in accordance with legal legislation.
Water given from boring must be analyzed during every season, with following spring abundance.
Natural spring oligomineral water in Bijakovac near Kozarska Dubica, belongs to calcium-hydro carbonate waters with small amount of Natrium.
It is drinkable and good for producing cool drinks, in accordance to its physical-chemical structure.
In order to eliminate microbiological pollution, it is necessary to hydro-geologically find primary water area and by closed system – borehole to exploitate this water with regular season physical-chemical and microbiological analyses, before starting bottling.
REASRCH DONE BY:
Branislav Potkonjak, phys. – chemist . Ljubiša Tomić, chemist. tehnician.
PROPOSAL AND OPINION:
Prof.dr Ratomir Tišma
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